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LED Screen Manufacturing

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How Are LED Modules Manufactured?

The LED module is the most important component of the LED display screen. The quality of the LED module directly determines the image display effect of the screen.

If you are curious or considering purchasing an LED display, understanding the production process of LED screens can help you gain a better understanding.

UNIT LED display factory is willing to show you every detail of the LED display production process.

LED Module Production Line

IC SMT

SMT Mechine uses solder paste to attach ICs, resistors, capacitors, power sockets, and signal sockets to the PCB board.

Reflow soldering

Reflow Soldering

After the IC is pasted, it is transferred to a machine (furnace) for baking, and the solder on the IC part that has just been pasted is soldered tightly for fixation.

LED SMT

First apply solder paste, then attach the lamp beads to the PCB on the SMT machine, and finally reinforce them through reflow soldering

light test

Light Test

Test - red, green, blue and white, scan test. Then put the PCB board on the shelf (with sponge pad) to prevent it from being crushed

brush three anti-piant

Brush Three Anti-piant

Install the bottom case of the LED module and put it into the machine to spray the three-proof paint (moisture-proof, waterproof and dust-proof).

Install screws on the bottom case

Screws on the Bottom Case

Secure the bottom case and PCB with screws

glue for outdoor module

Glue for Outdoor LED Module

Apply adhesive to the front surface of the module to achieve outdoor waterproofing.

Dry

Allow the LED modules to air dry naturally for 60 meters

screws mask

Screws Mask

Apply a mask to the LED modules, and finally secure them in the machine with screws.

How Are LED Screen Manufactured?

After understanding the production process of LED modules, we will show you the assembly, aging, packaging, and other processes of the display screen in the next two steps.

LED Module Aging

Main observations: the lifespan and attenuation of led lamps, the color difference of screen, white balance effect.

LED cabinet assemble

LED Cabinet Assemble

Assemble the LED module, power supply, receiving card and other accessories to obtain the LED display panel

full screen aging

Full Screen Aging

72 hours aging test enable the stable performance of LED display screens and to ensure the quality.

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More Details of UNIT LED Display Factory

Have you ever looked sideways at the outdoor LED screen with stunning visual effects on the streets of the city center? Have you ever invested in an attractive LED video wall for your studio or indoor stage?

If you are interested in LED displays, you may think about learning about LED screen manufacturing.

How is the LED display manufactured? What equipment will play a role in the LED screen manufacturing process?

As a manufacturer engaged in the production and sales of LED modules and LED displays for many years, UNIT LED wants to show you every detail of the process of LED panel manufacturing.

This post will help you get a better understanding of LED display products.

Table of Contents

1. Determine The Product Type

There are many types of LED displays. In addition to the conventional led panel, there is also a transparent led display, poster led screen, and so on.

According to specific project information and special requirements of customers, such as working environment, display content, usage, etc., it is necessary to finalize the product. Only by determining the various indicators of the product can we better meet the needs of customers.

At this stage, the professional business person will communicate with you in detail to make an accurate solution. You need to provide as much information as possible for them to make a judgment. The following issues need attention:

1.1 Determine the product specification model

Generally speaking, it includes 3 aspects: indoor or outdoor? full-color? pixel pitch?

According to the installation environment of the display screen, confirm whether to use an indoor or outdoor led display.

At present, the market is dominated by full-color led displays. Single-color or double-color led displays can only display specific colors.

The viewing distance and the size of the display screen are two factors that determine the pixel pitch. Appropriate spacing brings the best viewing effect and a reasonable budget range.

1.2 Determine product brightness

led display screen test

The brightness of the product can be adjusted before the display screen leaves the factory. Therefore, before Led screen manufacturing, it is necessary to determine the brightness of the display screen according to the customer’s on-site installation environment.

Generally speaking, the brightness of the outdoor led display is 5500-6500 cd/m2 (Nits). The brightness of the indoor led display is 800-1000 cd/m2 (Nits).

1.3 Installation Method and Structure

Select the installation method according to the site installation environment. The following points should be considered:

(1) Select the Cabinet

For indoor and outdoor fixed LED displays, you can choose a simple box or a sealed box. For rental led displays that need to be moved frequently, standardized and lightweight cabinets will be suitable.

In addition to the on-site environment, the weight and structural stability of the screen body also needs attention.

(2) Structural Design

The structural design of the display screen should pay attention to the following aspects:

Reliability. A solid structure is a prerequisite for safety. The bearing capacity of the structure should be greater than 20% of the weight of the display screen itself.

Flatness. The flatness of the structure directly affects the flatness of the display screen. So it will affect the display effect.

How to ensure good flatness? The first is to ensure the flatness of the welding. Secondly, the structural frame and the cabinet of the display screen are completely combined.

Integrity. In addition to the display screen body, the display structure also includes other auxiliary areas: drainage channels, air conditioners, wrapping areas of the outer structure, outdoor lightning protection facilities, etc. There are several aspects to consider in the early stages of design.

Convenience. The structural design needs to facilitate the installation and maintenance of the display. Necessary maintenance channels and cable passages are indispensable.

led screen manufacturing

2. Determine the BOM

After determining the product type, a detailed bill of materials needs to be made.

BOM means Bill of Material. It helps the computer identify the composition of the products manufactured by the enterprise and all the materials involved. In led screen manufacturing, the projects involved include:

Led display module

Led screen cabinet

Led display structure

Auxiliary equipment list

A complete material list is helpful for led display making. The integrity of materials can avoid the prolongation of the production cycle and delayed delivery caused by raw materials in the production process. At the same time, centralized purchase of raw materials saves time and money compared to scattered purchases.

3. The Process of LED Screen Manufacturing

The process of led screen manufacturing involves many aspects. Each production stage has different standards and precautions. We take the most popular SMD LED display module as an example to take you into the led display production line.

3.1 SMD LED Module Manufacturing

How is SMD led module produced? What tests have a batch of qualified led display modules gone through? Let’s read now!

(1) LED lamp baking

High-quality Led lamp is the key factor for the good visual effect of led display. If the LED lamp beads are not baked well, the follow-up module will have a dead light phenomenon and affect the normal display effect.

Therefore, baking it before use can solve the problem of moisture in the lamp bead and ensure the quality of the lamp bead.

(2) IC & LED SMT

Equipment required for IC & LED SMT: stencils, printing machine, SMT machine, reflow soldering machine.

The role of the stencil is to fix the driver element to the PCB. There are two kinds of stencils, red glue, and solder paste.

The red glue stencil is used to fix the components to the board, and the original components are soldered to the PCB by wave soldering. The solder paste stencil is to solder the components attached to the board on the PCB through a reflow soldering machine.

The thickness of stencils: red glue-0.15mm. Solder paste-0.12-0.15mm

The purpose of the printing machine is to apply red glue or solder paste evenly on the PCB.

Attention should be paid when printing: the stencil and PCB need to be in good contact and pressed tightly. Then, the printing surface should be uniform in thickness.

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UNIT LED SMT production line 

The SMT machine is a core equipment on the production line of the SMT industry. It is mainly used to mount electronic components onto circuit boards. SMT means Surface Mount System. SMT is configured after a dispenser or screen printing machine, and the surface mount component is accurately placed on the PCB by moving the mounting head.

IC SMT needs to brush solder paste on the board first, and then attach electronic components such as IC, resistors, capacitors, power & signal sockets to the PCB. Finally, it is strengthened by reflow soldering.

The steps of surface mounting of lamp beads are similar to the IC SMT process.

Precautions for SMT:

Orientation and polarity of components.

The component pins should be aligned with the pad package pins.

IC SMT

Reflow Soldering

Electronic components can be soldered on the PCB by reflow soldering. Its working principle is to melt the solder by reflow formed by high-temperature hot air, and then solder the components.

Precautions:

  • Reflow soldering is generally divided into a preheating zone, a heating zone, and a cooling zone. Pay attention to the setting of temperature in each interval.
  • Time setting for each temperature zone of reflow soldering.

(3) Semi-finished Product Test

Problems can be found by performing a lighting test on the semi-finished module. After overhauling for the next step. Mainly test the following aspects:

  • Is there any phenomenon of dead lights and dark lights?
  • Whether the electronic components are damaged
  • Whether the components have pseudo soldering or solder skips
  • Is the signal timing correct?

After the module test is completed, the module is assembled with the bottom case and the mask. Secure the bottom case and PCB with screws. It is worth noting that the outdoor led module needs to be covered with a mask after glue filling.

(4) Glue Filling (Only Outdoor LED Module)

For outdoor led modules, glue potting is required for waterproofing. Therefore, the module with the bottom case needs to be filled with glue.

After the glue is filled, it needs to be placed on a drying rack to wait for the surface glue to dry. Then fix the mask with screws.

Glue for outdoor led module

Glue for outdoor led module

When assembling the module, it is necessary to ensure the verticality of the led lamp. At the same time, when assembling, be careful not to damage the module bottom case and mask.

Pouring glue on the surface of the outdoor SMD led display module can play a waterproof role. This step is essential in the production of the GOB LED module. The GOB led module has high waterproof, dustproof, impact, and scratch resistance capabilities. One reason is the special glue-filling process.

Electronic potting glue is generally used now, and there are two types of A/B. When pouring glue, pay attention to:

  • The ratio of the two types of glue is reasonable and should be mixed evenly.
  • The amount of glue pouring should be moderate, neither too little nor too much. Too little will affect water resistance. Conversely, too much glue will affect the lighting angle of the led lamps and the assembly of the mask.
led screen manufacturing (2)

Secure the bottom case and PCB with screws

(5) LED Module Aging

Put the modules that have been installed in the kit together after glue filling and light up the test, which is called the aging test.

The purpose of aging finished modules is to make an overall evaluation of the whole screen. Main observations: the lifespan and attenuation of led lamps, the color difference of screen, white balance effect, display angle, quality of playing graphics and video, etc.

3.2 Cabinet Assembly & Aging

(1) LED cabinet assembly materials

  • Cabinet (standard cabinets generally have fans, aviation cabinets have power and signal aviation seats)
  • Power supply (5V switching power supply, power supply backplane)
  • Led display modules
  • Signal connection line (flex cable, network cable)
  • Power cord (the module uses a 5V power cord, and the power supply is a 220V power cord)
  • Screws, nuts, copper posts, screwdrivers
  • Led display control system

(2) Cabinet assembly process

  • Install the module on the box
  • Connect the signal cable between the modules
  • Connect to the 5V power cables of the module
  • Install the power supply, and borrow the 5V power cable on the module to the power supply
  • Connect the 220V power cable between the power sources. If there is a fan and air seat, connect them
  • Connect the control system and connect the system output to the modules

(3) Precautions for cabinet assembly

Ensure the flatness of the modules

Control the length of power and signal wires. Under the premise of meeting the needs, the cables should be as short as possible. It can reduce the voltage drop and signal attenuation on the cables, and save the wire at the same time.

Distinguish the polarity of the power cord. The cables have positive and negative poles. Improper connection or cause display failure

The input and sequence of system output and module signal cannot be reversed.

(4) LED Display Screen Aging & Testing

The assembled led screen cabinet needs to do a vibration test and waterproof test before going on the aging rack. The vibration test checks whether each assembly device is firm. The waterproof test checks whether the waterproof rubber ring of the module is firm. Whether there are any missing screws on the module.

led module aging (2)

LED Display Module Aging

Why Does the LED Screen Need Aging?

The LED aging test is an indispensable part of led display manufacturing. Led products can improve efficiency and find existing problems after aging. It is an important link before shipment. The purpose is to guarantee the quality of the delivered product.

The led aging test takes measures according to the failure rate curve of the product to improve its reliability of the product.

LED Aging Method

There are two aging methods: constant current aging and constant pressure aging. The aging of the LED display is divided into white light aging (4 hours) and video aging (48 hours).

Constant current aging means that the current is constant at any time. If there is a frequency problem, it is not a constant current, but an alternating or pulsating current.

An AC or pulsating current source can be designed to have a constant effective value, but this power supply cannot be called a “constant current source”. Constant current aging is in line with the characteristics of LED current and is a scientific method for LED aging.

Overcurrent impact aging is also an aging method used by the led display manufacturer. In this way, the frequency of use can be adjusted, which is convenient for judging the quality and life of the LED in a short time. This old-fashioned way can pick out many blemishes that conventional burn-in cannot pick out.

led screen aging test

LED Display Screen Aging

LED Display Aging Test Content

Screen white balance test

Red, green, blue monochrome, grayscale gradient, video effect, text effect;

LED display white balance test time needs to be more than 24 hours

Monochrome, grayscale gradient test not less than 24 hours

The video and text effect test shall not be less than 24 hours

After the 72-hour aging test, if any problem is found, it needs to be dealt with in time. And the damaged led lamps should be replaced or repaired. Make sure all products are working properly. After confirming that it is correct, the next step is to pack and ship.

4. How Are LED Screens Manufactured?

How are LED screens manufactured? Above we have shown you the process of LED screen manufacturing in detail.

If you still have some doubts, then the following video will take you into the UNIT LED screen production line intuitively!

4.1 UNIT LED Module Assembly Line

LED Panel Manufacturing Process

Step 1: SMT uses solder paste to attach ICs to the PCB board. In this process, three lines are opened in total (adjust as needed based on actual conditions) to attach the ICs.

 “SMT machine” refers to a Surface Mount Technology machine used for electronic component placement on PCB boards.

 Step 2: Reflow soldering – After the ICs are attached to the PCB board, it is conveyed to the machine (oven) for baking, which serves to secure the components. Finally, the PCB board is released for heat dissipation.

Step 3: Use an SMT machine to attach LED lights to the PCB board. Then, the components will go through the reflow soldering machine once again for baking and securing the LED lights. Finally, a check will be conducted to ensure the proper functioning of the LED lights.

Step 4: Install the module base and apply three-proof paint (moisture-proof, waterproof, and dust-proof). All outdoor LED modules require painting. If there are customers who request indoor LED modules to be painted, it can be done as well. Finally, the PCB board needs to be flipped over to check if the painting is in place.

Step 5: Place the LED modules into the machine and fasten the screws.

Step 6: Apply adhesive to the front surface of the module to achieve outdoor waterproofing.

Step 7: Allow the LED modules to air dry naturally for 60 meters, apply a cover to the modules, and finally secure them in the machine with screws.

4.2 Automatic Assembly Line

(1) Apply three-proof paint.

(2) Dry.

(3) Use a blow dryer to lower the temperature of the LED modules.

(4) Cover the bottom shell.

(5) Screw the bottom shell.

(6) Test if the lights can function properly.

(7) Apply adhesive to the LED modules – if there are any issues with the test results, they will be listed separately.

(8) Air dry.

(9) Automatically apply the cover and screw it in place.

5. Transparent LED Screen Manufacturing

The transparent LED display has extremely high transparency. It is significantly different from ordinary led displays.

Based on the light strip screen, it innovates in the chip manufacturing process, lamp bead packaging, control system, and structural design.

The unique manufacturing process and hollow structure reduce the occlusion of the line of sight, thus achieving the perspective effect.

UNIT Transparent LED Display Production Line

(1) Put the PCB board into the machine, then brush the board with a layer of solder paste

(2) Sticking LED lamps in SMT machine production line

(3) After the reflow soldering is finished, the worker will check whether the transparent led module is working properly.

(4) Assemble the transparent led screen

(5) Aging test

6. UNIT LED Display Factory Equipment Show

SMT Machine
Screw machine
Three-proof paint machine
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LED drying machine
Drying machine
Test Shelf
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7. Why Choose UNIT as Your LED Screen Manufacturer?

UNIT LED is a LED display manufacturer with more than 10 years of experience. We focus on the R&D, production, and sales of led modules & led displays. With rich experience, high-quality products, and a reliable team, UNIT LED has won unanimous praise from customers.

(1) 10+ Years of Professional Experience

UNIT LED has served many projects around the world for decades in the LED industry. Customers all over the world, many successful cases let you show our strength.

What’s more, we have established close cooperation with many raw material suppliers. High-standard raw materials fully guarantee the quality of led display products.

(2) Scientific Production Line

More than 8,000 square meters of well-equipped production lines and professional testing equipment ensure the production capacity of the factory. UNIT LED has modern production equipment and skilled employees.

At the same time, the strong production capacity of the UNIT led display factory ensures excellent delivery.

(3) LED Display Solution Provider

In addition to led products, UNIT LED also provides you with a one-stop led display solution. 3D led display solution? sports stadium led display? virtual production led wall solution? UNIT LED provides a one-stop solution for your projects. 

(4) Reliable Team

A strong team behind UNIT LED helps you to get a satisfactory led display board.

A professional technical team will solve customers’ technical problems. At the same time, we promise to provide customers with a 3-year warranty and 5% free spare parts to ensure user experience and customer satisfaction.

8. Conclusion

In this post, we show you something about led screen manufacturing. If you are interested in visiting UNIT led display factory in Shenzhen, contact us.